Lets have a peek at the medieval history of Eindhoven city(Netherlands) ever bustling with an amazing blend of innovation,design & technology

We have been to Eindhoven,Netherlands on two occasions (50 days in 2019 & 75 days in 2022 summing up our total stay of 125 days)in this beautiful, calm ,modern, friendly, pleasant & peaceful place! We have always found the place bustling with Innovation,design & technology !This fascinating combination makes it an extraordinatory place!It has a vibrant urban culture!It is a rare blend of tradional & modern trends !Eindhoven has proved to be as an excellent base for our fabulous trips to France, Belgium,Switzerland, Germany,Spain, Portugal, Rome, Vatican & Venice! Out of sheer curiosity,we wanted to have a peek at the medieval history of this amazing place which we are sharing with our valued readers! We will be leaving for India tomorrow carrying with us great memories of our stay at Eindhoven & the marvellous trips to the beautiful & amazing destinations planned & emanated from here! ‘bye’ Eindhoven for now.

Eindhoven is the fifth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands, centrally located(being in close proximity with cities like Antwerp,Amsterdam,Dusseldorf & London) in the south of the country .Known as a technology and design hub, it’s the birthplace of Philips electronics, which built the Philips Stadium, home to the PSV soccer team. The Philips Museum traces the company’s design history. Nearby, the Van Abbemuseum focuses on art and design.In the Eindhoven museum, located in the Genneper parken,one can experience life in our prehistoric/medieval times.Its a cycling city with innovation in the form of the Luminous Van Gogh Roosegarde cycle path inspired by Van Gogh’s Starry Nights. Northwest, the post- industrial area of old factories & buildings have been converted into Strijp-S houses, design studios/shops/academy, innovation labs, network of appartment buidings and restaurants.It is a thriving centre outside the city centre.Famous place is the Veem market which is good for Danish food market culture.It had a population of 235,923 in 2021, making it the largest city in the province of North Brabant. Eindhoven was originally located at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender. Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop-Mierlo, Helmond, Heeze-Leende, Waalre, Veldhoven, Eersel, Oirschot and Best. The agglomeration has a population of 337,487. The metropolitan area consists of 780,611 inhabitants. The city region has a population of 753,426.The Brabantse Stedenrij  combined metropolitan area has about two million inhabitants.

How was the name ‘Eindhoven’ derived? “Eind” may have been derived from “Gender”, the city is located at the end of this little river. Genderhoven phonetically would have changed to Endehoven. ‘Ende’ is also the old spelling and pronunciation of the word ‘eind’, which would explain the change from ‘Gender’ to ‘Eind’.

History of Eindhoven :
13th–15th centuries:
The written history of Eindhoven started in 1232, when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Eindhoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment was its location on the trade route from Holland to Liège. Around 1388, the city’s fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Guelders.

16th–18th centuries:

The capture of Eindhoven in 1583, by Frans Hogenberg. The reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 it fell again, its defense works having been neglected due to poverty. A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished. Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the Industrial Revolution.

19th century:
The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century provided a major growth impulse. Canals, roads and railroads were constructed. Eindhoven was connected to the major Zuid-Willemsvaart canal through the Eindhovens Kanaal branch in 1843 and was connected by rail to Tilburg, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Venlo and Belgium between 1866 and 1870. Industrial activities initially centred around tobacco and textiles and boomed with the rise of lighting and electronics giant Philips, which was founded as a light bulb manufacturing company in Eindhoven in 1891. Industrialisation brought population growth to Eindhoven. On the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, Eindhoven had 2,310 inhabitants.

20th century:
By 1920, the population was 47,946; by 1925 it was 63,870 and in 1935 that had ballooned to 103,030. The explosive growth of industry in the region and the subsequent housing needs of workers called for radical changes in administration, as the City of Eindhoven was still confined to its medieval moat city limits. In 1920, the five neighbouring municipalities of Woensel (to the north), Tongelre (northeast and east), Stratum (southeast), Gestel en Blaarthem (southwest) and Strijp (west), which already bore the brunt of the housing needs and related problems, were incorporated into the new Groot-Eindhoven (“Greater Eindhoven”) municipality. The prefix “Groot-” was later dropped.
After the incorporation of 1920, the five former municipalities became districts of the Municipality of Eindhoven, with Eindhoven-Centrum (the City proper) forming the sixth. Since then, an additional seventh district has been formed by dividing the largest district, that of Woensel, into Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord.There was National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, Eindhoven in April 1941.People of Eindhoven (during World War II) watched the Allied forces entering the city following its liberation from Axis forces on 19 September 1944.

The early 20th century saw additions in technical industry with the advent of car and truck manufacturing company Van Doorne’s Aanhangwagenfabriek (Trailer factory) (DAF) which was later renamed to Van Doorne’s Automobiel Fabriek and the subsequent shift towards electronics and engineering, with the traditional tobacco and textile industries waning and finally disappearing in the 1970s.
A first air raid in World War II was flown by the RAF on 6 December 1942 targeting the Philips factory downtown, in which 148 civilians died, even though the attack was carried out on a Sunday by low-flying Mosquito bombers. Large-scale air raids, including the bombing by the Luftwaffe on 19 September 1944 during Operation Market Garden, destroyed large parts of the city and killed 227 civilians while leaving 800 wounded. The reconstruction that followed left very little historical remains and the postwar reconstruction period saw drastic renovation plans in highrise style, some of which were implemented. At the time, there was little regard for historical heritage. During the 1960s, a new city hall was built and its Neo-gothic predecessor (1867) demolished to make way for a planned arterial road that never materialised.

The 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s saw large-scale housing developments in the districts of Woensel-Zuid and Woensel-Noord, making Eindhoven the fifth-largest city in the Nls. The large-scale housing developments of the 20th century saw residential areas being built on former agricultural lands and woods, former heaths that had been turned into cultivable lands in the 19th century.Timeline of Eindhoven history in 20th century: 1904 – Wilhelminaplein (Eindhoven) laid out.
1909 -Eindhoven Football club formed.
1910 – Philips Stadion (stadium) opens.
1911 – Eindhovens Dagblad (newspaper) begins publication.
1913 – PSV Eindhoven (football club) formed.
1920 :Gestel, Stratum, Strijp, Tongelre &Woensel become part of the municipality of Eindhoven. Population: 47,946.
1921 – Lichttoren (Eindhoven) built.
1931 – Witte Dame built.
1932 :Welschap Airfield begins operating. DAF Trucks in business.
1936 – Van Abbemuseum opens.
1937 – Museum Kempenland opens.
1944, 20 September -Liberation of Eindhoven
1939 – Witte Dorp neighborhood developed.
1942 – December: Aerial bombing by Allied forces.
1944 – September: City besieged by Allied forces.
1945 – Het Vrije Volk newspaper begins publication.
1947 – Design Academy Eindhoven established.
1955 – Population: 154,604
1956 :Eindhoven railway station rebuilt.
Eindhoven University of Technology established.
1959 :Eindhoven Marathon begins.
Herman Witte becomes mayor.
1964:Parktheater Eindhoven opens.
Philips Nederland built.
1966 – The futuristic Evoluon science museum was built.
1967 – City Hall rebuilt.
1969 – Student centre De Bunker (Eindhoven) built.
1970 – De Bijenkorf department store built
1971 – Effenaar youth centre established.
1976 – Administrative entity for the Eindhoven agglomeration created.
1979 – Gilles Borrie becomes mayor.
1980 – Het Apollohuis cultural venue established.
1982 – Open-air Eindhoven Museum & Streekarchief regio established 1984 – Eindhoven Airport terminal built.
1985 – May: Catholic pope visits city.
1992 -Muziekgebouw Frits Philips (concert hall) opens.
Rein Welschen becomes mayor.
1993 – Holland Casino branch in business.
1996 -Belgian Air Force Hercules accident occurs at Eindhoven Airport.
1997 -Philips headquarters relocated to Amsterdam.
Jan Louwers Stadion (stadium) in use.
1999 – De Regent hi-rise built.
2000–UEFA Euro 2000 football contest held.

21st century:
At the start of the 21st century, a whole new housing development called Meerhoven was constructed at the site of the old airport of Welschap, west of Eindhoven. The airport itself, now called Eindhoven Airport, had moved earlier to a new location, paving the way for much-needed new houses. Meerhoven is part of the Strijp district and is partially built on lands annexed from the municipality of Veldhoven.

21st century time line history of Eindhoven
2001 – City joins regional BrabantStad group.
2002-Leefbaar Eindhoven political party active.
Dutch Design Week begins.
Avant-Garde van Groeninge restaurant in business.
2003-Regionaal Historisch Centrum Eindhoven active.
Kennedytoren hi-rise built.
2004 – Inkijkmuseum opens.
2006-Glow Festival Eindhoven begins.
De Admirant, Porthos, and Vesteda Toren hi-rises built.
2008-De Parade (Eindhoven) built.
Rob van Gijzel becomes mayor.
Automotive Pole Position Eindhoven event held.
2009 – Strijp R redevelopment begins (approximate date).
2010-Admirant shopping centre’s “Blob” building constructed.
Piet Hein Eek studio in business.
2012 – Stadionkwartier (Eindhoven) built.
2014 – 19 March: Dutch municipal elections, 2014 held.
2015 – Population: 223,220 city; 753,426 metro region

Archeological Research to the Medieval Eindhovan: The Medieval Roots of Eindhoven

At present Eindhoven is a modern city with few historical remains.This is largely due to sustained bombings in the World war II & subsequent urbanization.The high tech industry for which Eindhoven is renowned makes one think of the future rather than the past.However as Archeological excavations have revealed that the city has a rich history with a wealth of remains & important clues particularly from the medieval period.

Back in the past era :

The city originated some 800 yrs ago,in the so called Kempen;a rural dutch brabant founded at the current market Square which was located along the road from Den Bosch to the North & Antewerp to the west.City charter was imparted by the duke of Brabant in 1232..Due to its central location,Eindhoven quickly developed into an important centre of commerce.As the city archieve was destroyed in an extensive fire in fifteenth century,this early phse in history is not well known.Recent archeological invesigations& excavations have revealed remains that offer important clues.Archeological excavations of various areas such as the City Castle,Church of St. Catharina & Woenselse city gate have provided important new information about the city & inhabitants of the middle ages & their way of living.

New Research:

In 2019 ,new investigation took place as part of the reconstruction of the Vestdijk, Hertogstraat & Kanalstraat.During these excavations remains of the medieval city moat(a defensive canal), the Castle & two Tanneries were recovered in Eindhoven.From historical sources,it was already known that the medieval stronghold of Eindhoven consisted of a double moat & double earthen ramp.It was only recently in 2019 that remains of these came to light during an excavation at the Vestdijk.During the ‘Eighty -years-war'(1568-1648), the double moat was temporarily inoperative & a new moat was dug through a large part of the city remains of which have also been discovered in the 2019 excavations.

A Castle in the City-Even the residents of the city might be surprised to know that Eindhoven once had a Castle(which was a part of the Fortifications) belonging to the Lords of Eindhoven located at the present Vestdijk(fortress dyke).Craft & industry-Though Eindhoven is famous for its Philips industry but even long back the city was bustling with commercial activities such as production of soap, matches,cigars,linen & leather.Many of these facilities needed water ,hence their location near the Dommel & Oude stadsgratch(the remains of the 19th century Tannery has been found)

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My dear readers may kindly point out any incorrect information in my above writeup needing any corrections! I am truly indebted to Wikipedia & eindhoven.nl/vestdijk for the invaluable information on the subject !Happy Reading !

Published by Dhirendra.S.Chauhan

I am a travel enthusiast from Jaipur(India) always full of curiosity to explore new places marked by some cultural, geographical & historical significance around the globe. Also I love visiting places full of adventure/mystery & have undertaken many amazing trekking expeditions to difficult locations needing toughness of body, soul & spirit. I have explored most of Indian states/UTs to learn about their culture,had cultural exchange with people & learnt to respect their religious beliefs/customs. Very recently(September 2019), we have been on our maiden foreign trip(50 days)to Netherlands, France, Belgium& Switzerland.The trips were full of amazing monuments,natural landscapes & places of great scenic beauty.Enjoyed the visit enormously.Having traveled so much I felt like travel blogging & here I am doing just that !Apart from travel-blogging I also like poetry. Basically I am an Electrical Engineer retired recently from Central Govt. Service after serving for 38 yrs. Meanwhile I have completed my Master of Social Work degree to pursue my Social obligations towards my fellow beings & am engaged in rendering Social Services to the needy &the disadvantaged ! Also I will like to pursue my new-found interest/hobby of writing Travelogues to benefit my readers by providing max. details like statistics, demography, historical origin, way of life , professions , languages spoken & the culture/customs associated with any place. While enjoying any tourist place, I simply advocate that one must also try to learn about the place. I travel and then share the collected information with the potential traveler .Hence the name of my site - Travel and share.😊

12 thoughts on “Lets have a peek at the medieval history of Eindhoven city(Netherlands) ever bustling with an amazing blend of innovation,design & technology

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    Liked by 1 person

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